The Department of Defense divides development further, giving each category a code: 6. As of , research funding 6. Each agency supports both in-house intramural research as well as grants to outside academic or industrial organizations. Inventions "conceived or actually reduced to practice " in the performance of government-funded research may be subject to the Bayh-Dole Act.
This act will limit or eliminate lengthy legal and bureaucratic challenges that used to accompany contested filings. It may also disadvantage very small entities, for which the legal costs of preparing an application are the main barrier to filing. This legislation has also fostered the rise of what are familiarly known as patent trolls.
Most of the leading political issues in the United States have a scientific component. For example, renewable energy , Stem Cell Research, climate change , and national security. Despite the growing integration of science in policy there are only a handful of Congressional members and their staff who have sufficient background in science; therefore they refer to various congressional support agencies for analysis on science related issues.
Important for thinking about science in political discourse is that congressional members weigh many factors when addressing an issue, not just the scientific merit of an issue.
There are also a number of state and local agencies which deal with state-specific science policy and provide additional funding, such as the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. The level of research spending varies considerably from one state to another. California is home to Silicon Valley, the name given to the area hosting the leading corporations and start-ups in information technology. California supplies Some 5.
In much the same way, Route around Boston in the State of Massachusetts is not only home to numerous high-tech firms and corporations but also hosts the renowned Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Washington State has a high concentration of high-tech firms like Microsoft, Amazon and Boeing and the engineering functions of most automobile manufacturers are located in the State of Michigan.
Several pharmaceutical companies figure among the top 15 corporations for research spending. European Commission: Brussels, Table 2. Killian , appointed in by President Dwight D. Eisenhower after Sputnik Shock created the urgency for the government to support science and education. President Eisenhower realized then that if Americans were going to continue to be the world leader in scientific, technological and military advances, the government would need to provide support.
After World War II, the US government began to formally provide support for scientific research and to establish the general structure by which science is conducted in the US. Vannevar Bush was President Roosevelt's science advisor and became one of the most influential science advisors as, in his essay, he pioneered how we decide on science policy today. The creation of the National Science Foundation , although implemented in , was a controversial issue that started as early as , between engineer and science administrator Vannevar Bush and Senator Harley M.
Kilgore D-WV , who was interested in the organization of military research. Senator Kilgore presented a series of bills between to Congress, the one that most resembles the establishment of the NSF, by name, was in , outlining an independent agency whose main focus was to promote peacetime basic and applied research as well as scientific training and education.
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Some specifics outlined were that the director would be appointed and the board would be composed of scientists, technical experts and members of the public. The government would take ownership of intellectual property developed with federal funding and funding would be distributed based on geographical location, not merit. Although both Bush and Kilgore were in favor of government support of science, they disagreed philosophically on the details of how that support would be carried out.
In particular, Bush sided with the board being composed of just scientists with no public insight. It illustrates that these questions about patent rights, social science expectations, the distribution of federal funding geographical or merit , and who scientists or policymakers get to be the administrators are interesting questions that science policy grapples with.
U.S. Scientific Research and Development 202
This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. December Air Force. Basic Research 6. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.
Historical Tables | The White House
November Main article: United States patent law. Office of Science and Technology Policy. Retrieved 19 March United States of America.
The National Academies. Retrieved 29 April As seen in the graph below, changes in the research funding landscape tend to be incremental from year to year.
An exception was the period when the budget of the NIH doubled. Here are a couple of interesting observations:. Deciphering the Department of Defense 2. US Department of Agriculture 7. Deciphering the Department of Defense. There has been discussion of fixing the 6. Figure 1. Figure 3. Funding by general institute and funding mechanism categories is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. Figure 2. In terms of national impact on research, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration funds around 16 percent of all federal support for engineering research and 7 percent of all federal support for basic and applied research.
Notably absent are funds for the now retired Space Shuttle and the discontinued Constellation Program. DOE is the 1 federal sponsor of the physical sciences, supplying nearly half of all federal supporting this science category. That said, however, not everyone in Congress is a supporter of DOE. US Department of Agriculture. Other notable areas of emphasis include environmental biology and economics the latter through the ERS — Economic Research Service.
The US Department of Commerce is perhaps one of the most difficult federal agencies to describe and to understand. A cabinet department i.
Science policy of the United States
Below, we have preserved some historical plots prepared by AAAS for these respective agencies. To our knowledge, these useful graphs are no longer being annually updated. All rights reserved. Resource 2. Below, we attempt to provide more information of this flavor agency-by-agency via profiles we have adapted from AAAS.