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The author points out in what respects a study of his style might be rewarding even today. Caston and Francis R. With materials from Quintilian, Cicero, Plutarch, and Pseudo-Asconius, the author shows that Verres remained in Rome after the first actio and that Hortensius made a short but brillant speech to defend his client [PhR]. Alexander offers a reconstruction of the case for the prosecution in eleven criminal trials held in the late Roman Republic. Scholars' previous understanding of these trials has been conditioned by the only extant primary source: the forensic speeches of Cicero.

With the exception of one important trial, all these speeches are for the defense. In this study, Alexander analyzes Cicero's arguments to rebuild the lost side of the trials from the prosecution's point of view. Alexander's examination of each trial reveals the strong points of the prosecution's case, as well as the weaknesses on which Cicero's defense seized. Alexander brings to bear his expertise on Roman law as he considers a wide variety of factors--evidence collected by the prosecution, legal arguments, rhetorical skill of advocates on both sides, and participants' personal prestige--to understand why the prosecutors believed they would emerge victorious.

For Roman historians court records as we know them today do not exist. To fill that gap Michael C. Alexander has tabulated, as exhaustively as possible, the scattered information available about the known trials, criminal and civil, dating from the last century of the Roman Republic BC to 50 BC. For each case Alexander provides as many pieces of legal data as are available, including wherever possible the date of the trial, the charge, the verdict, and the names of all involved: defendant, defense speaker, prosecutor or plaintiff, presiding magistrate, jurors, and witnesses.

The entry for each trial also contains citations of relevant ancient sources and modern scholarship. Footnotes make the reader aware of any dubious or controversial points which relate to the formal aspects of the trial. Also included are a general index of names, plus separate indexes by role, and an index of procedures.

For Roman historians and scholars in the fields of Roman law and Latin rhetoric, this volume is an invaluable reference work for the study of the judicial system of ancient Rome in the last one hundred years of the Republic. Sbordone p. Translation of title: Why Cicero? Examines the reasons of Petrarca and his immediate sucessors in the Florentine circle for choosing Cicero as their constant reference point. In this dissertation I ask how the concept of probable opinion shifts from probity to plausibility in sixteenth and early seventeenth-century French civil and canonic jurisprudence.

I show how authoritative opinion shifts to personal opinion over three generations of legal thought. I argue that the shift in the notion of probable opinion occurs as a result of the acceptance of Skeptical epistemology by sixteenth and seventeenth-century jurists, both civil and canonic. Montaigne and Pascal respond to relativism in legal opinions by advocating a moderate skepticism, that of the Academy. I explain the potential for jurists to slip into radical skepticism from a combination of historical causes and ambiguity present in one of the main sources for French legal thought, Cicero.

Cicero slips between Stoic and Skeptical epistemology in a way that is misread by utilitarian jurists who are reforming French civil law. Pascal recognizes the extreme skepticism of Jesuit casuists. Unwilling to combat their doctrine of probable opinion by a return to dogmatism, he finds a middle ground. He concedes to the verisimilar notion of opinion which is held by his opponent and his audience alike. By restricting himself to arguments common to civil and canonic jurists, Pascal casts sufficient doubt on the epistemological foundation of Jesuit probable opinions without destroying the concept itself.

Breve estudio de las citas en las que aparece mencionado este numerario. Brief study of the appointments where this coinage is mentioned. The present article studies the relationship between the city of Athens and Pompey the Great, well-known and key character in the final of the Republic. Twenty years of research and debate on the Roman economy explored in all its aspects-coinage, credit, finances, comerce, agriculture-by one of the greatest living specialists. Concerne le fragment transmis par Nonius, p. Lire exsilium? In polacco con riassunto in francese. Orazione contro Catilina, Orazione Filippica, 1.

Orazione De legge agraria, Trenta lettere, Somnium Scipionis. Schwyzer cf. APh LI No. His use of Minucianus as a source is surprising. The description of each asystaton seems to come from Hermogenes, but the theoretical basis is from Minucianus, not Hermogenes. Cicero in the De Officiis transformed the juridical idea of libertas in a new Stoicized concept with a moral, universalistic, nature and based on the iudicium of individual men.

By adopting this re-conceptualised idea of liberty in his contemporary orations, the Philippicae, Cicero was then able to frame his fight against Antony in novel conceptual terms. Informing the practice of politics, Greek philosophy altered the rules according to which the battle of the end of the Republic was fought, while, at the same time, modified Roman political language: not only did it give rise to a new idea of liberty, but also to a stronger derogatory descriptive force of its antonym dominatus.

Thus the analysis of the use of rhetorical invective provides a window on the changing moral and political identity of the society of the late Republic. Only if each member of the commonwealth fulfils his civic responsibilities in accordance with his place in society, will the res publica of old be restored and the liberty of individual citizens along with it.

Thus, in advocating the exercise of individual virtues on the part of all members of the community, Cicero defends the liberty of the commonwealth and the plurality of interests of its citizens. II,22,, Part. V,28 : VII,31 et Rhet. Also, there was need in the Letters for brief but striking quotations. Pompeius and M. Aemilius Scaurus. Both were tried under circumstances similar to those in which Murena found himself and both were acquitted.

About Paetus Fam. Cicerone appare pure in due ritratti affrescati a Lucignano della Chiana e a Montalcino. Like any other partnership, the Roman state is upheld by the agreement of its members and an allocation of rewards that is proportionate to the contributions. Cicero sketches an outline of this view in his definition of this state. By focusing on how Cicero uses the definition in the construction of his argument, the paper attempts to uncover a detailed view of the state as a partnership.

The ancestral Roman constitution, Cicero argues, surpasses all other constitutions in offering the best division of contributions and rewards. Although the state is held together by the agreement of the whole people, there is an enormous disparity in the assessment of contributions and rewards among different social groups.

This article is an attempt to grasp the historical evolution which led to this paradoxical situation, actually attested in the last decades of the republican era. I here test the hypothesis of a polysemy of the nomen imperatoris in republican official documents: every pro magistrate holding imperium could legally designate himself as an imperator, and the use of the title in inscriptions or coins must not be interpreted a priori as referring to an appellatio imperatoria. This ceremony may have made its appearance in the ideological context of the social war and the civil conflicts in the 80s.

In any case, it only became frequent in the 60s, and it was seen as a preliminary step to the set of honours granted to victorious commanders. The deceptive simplicity of the concept and its familiarity as a key element in republican theory make it tempting to overlook its theoretical underpinnings. This paper argues that to do so would be a mistake, for the various accounts of the mixed regime in fact presuppose fundamental and not uncontroversial views about human nature, chance, and reason. When these latent concepts underlying treatments of the mixed regime are illuminated, it turns out that there is not, as is often assumed, a single theory of the mixed regime - not even if the search is limited to Greek and Roman political thought.

The thinker who most effectively draws our attention to this is Cicero.

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Since a syllogistic style coexists with a more abundant one in the same speech, he wholly discredits Stoic rhetoric and declares that the philosophers of the Porch only possess one way of expressing themselves, the dialectical one, whose validity he contests both in the practice of philosophy, which he thinks is ineffective, and in the field of oratory, because such a style is fundamentally inappropriate to every possible audience. In De Oratore, Crassus analyzes Stoic philosophical expression from a rhetorical point of view, whereas he studies Academic and Peripatetic philosophical eloquence without examining if it would suit an orator.

In Brutus, the eponymous character insists on the so-called unity and homogeneity of Stoic eloquence, both in Athens and in Rome, in philosophical conversations and in forensic, deliberative or encomiastic speeches. It is also dry, obscure because of a constant gap between res and uerba , useless as far as invention and topics are concerned, and above all, self-destructive.

However, Stoic dialectic did have a heuristic function, and not only a defensive or an agonistic one. Cicero shows us that the bonds between Slaves and the Opponents of the Republic take the place of the Republican system by a personal power. Such system is a an inverted nodal of the res publica. This nodal leanson inicited practices of the sacred behaviour and political struggles. Une analyse subtile et assez convaincante de C. Voir notre Otium III, Studio paleografico condotto sui resti di un codice papiraceo recante il testo, con traduzione greca parallela, della prima orazione di Cicerone contro Catilina.

Intervento nel dibattito contemporaneo, con particolare riferimento alle tesi di G. Sprigath, sul ruolo di Senocrate di Atene come fonte ellenistica degli autori romani che si occuparono di arte antica, quali Cicerone, Quintiliano e Plinio. Partendo dalle citazioni aristoteliche su Anassimandro Phys. I paradossi degli Stoici, testo latino a fronte, introduzione, traduzione e note di Renato Badal?. Er stellt Religion und Ethik auf eine von der Gesellschaft autonome Stufe.

Lucullus: on one side, a honourable soldier and politician, and, on the other side, a corrupt wealthy man. Both images deal with the political struggle in the Late Republic. I argue that existing characterisations suffer either from methodological weaknesses or from a misguided perspective on the appropriateness of the expression of grief emotions. Some modern insights into the grieving process will also serve as an analytical tool for an accurate description of the grief we find in his works.

My analysis will be based mostly on reassessing the evidence in the letters during the early stages of his grief. This paper is part of a larger project see Baltussen forthcoming-2b, 3 which aims to look at the consolation as a form of psycho therapy in antiquity and beyond. Adriaen : Quod cum audissem, quasi a fortissimo pugile percussus essem, coepit tacitus aestuare, et stuporem mentis vultus pallore signare. Die Formulierung des Nebensatzes quasi a fortissimo pugile percussus essem ist genau dieselbe wie im Die in In Esaiam ist in etwa zu datieren und steht somit zeitlich zwischen Ep.

Drawing from a remarkable array of ancient and modern sources, Carlin Barton offers the most complex understanding to date of the emotional and spiritual life of the ancient Romans. Speaking directly to the concerns and curiosities of the contemporary reader, Barton brings Roman society to life, elucidating the complex relation between the inner life of its citizens and its social fabric.

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Though thoroughly grounded in the ancient writings - especially the work of Seneca, Cicero, and Livy - this book also draws from contemporary theories of the self and social theory to deepen our understanding of ancient Rome. Barton explores the relation between inner desires and social behavior through an evocative analysis of the operation, in Roman society, of contests and ordeals, acts of supplication and confession, and the sense of shame. As she fleshes out Roman physical and psychological life, she particularly sheds new light on the consequential transition from republic to empire as a watershed of Roman social relations.

This beautifully written work not only generates insight into Roman history, but also uses that insight to bring us to a new understanding of ourselves, our modern codes of honor, and why it is that we think and act the way we do. It was encouraged and waged in the terms of the republic. Only hindsight makes it the paradigm shifting event that meant the end of the Republic.

Not only does Caesarian speed become the essense of speed as Caesar travels south in 49, but his consilium had already required two legions south of the Alps before the end of And it is consilium that fails Pompey in his final scene. These were wars that increased "the glory and dignity of the empire" 11 and secured the safety of Rome. The competition to be primus, optimus, maximus joined the gloria Cn.

In 56 when Cicero spoke about the consular provinces we find Caesar now associated with these terms of praise. His fides, virtus, and felicitas is what governs Gaul; he brings laws, rights and peace to Gaul. This accrues to the glory of Rome, the extension and safety of her empire, and fires Cicero with a great love for his country. His dignitas, more than the safety of the republic, demanded a prolonged supplicatio; his dignitas required more than was sufficient for the gods.

He seems to know, too, that Caesar was no Scipio, despite the presence of another Cato: he warns against the evil of diminishing the glory and honor of men eager to conduct the affairs of the Republic Similarly, The Gallic War presents Caesar as the coming of Rome, her history, her laws, her social structure, her virtues.

Enemies are defeated both by the Roman army and their own failures in fides, virtus, self-restraint. The good Gauls are noble; the enemies of Rome are demagogues. When violence harms the workings of clientela among the Aedui and Sequani, Caesar sets their state in order. The Civil War is of a piece with this rhetoric. Furthermore, his actions destroy good government at Rome, both in terms of equity and in terms of constitutional legality. He and his cronies replace res publica with their own personal interests, res privata.

This final scene of book 1 after the battle at Ilerda finds Caesar administering justice, bringing peace and law and Roman values to the war. As Caesar put bellum civile on his resume, he was continuing a republican tradition, one in which competition justified egregious power by identifying victory with the state, one that sought publica auctoritas forprivato consilio, one that fought for and protected res publica, and in so doing brought the republic to an end.

I rimandi ad altre fonti hanno scopo contrastivo. The introduction identifies the currently existing confusion concerning severitas, and demonstrates the importance of attaining as precise a definition as possible. Chapter One establishes how strongly severitas was anchored in the ideology of ancient Rome, whereas Chapter Two concentrates on Cicero's own ambivalent attitude toward this virtue.

Chapter Three discusses the more public application of severitas, particularly in the legal and administrative fields. The Conclusion focuses on summarizing the findings of this paper, and on determining whether there is any textual evidence for a relationship between cruelty and severitas. Appendix A consists of all the Latin passages that contain some form of the severitas concept in the texts of the Ciceronian epoch. Appendix B gives a brief synopsis of the grammatical distribution of sever - in Cicero, whereas Appendix C shows its distribution by category as well as individual works of Cicero.

La parole vive anime les langues mortes. Cornelius Sulla , the nephew of the dictator, on a charge of participation in the Catilinarian conspiracy. This edition, which contains a new text together with introduction, commentary and appendices, is the first full-scale scholarly treatment of the speech. The text takes account of Gulielmius' reports of the missing portion of the Erfurtensis manuscript, recovered by Dr Berry and published as a preliminary to this edition in ; a complete collation is provided of this and the other principal manuscripts.

The introduction includes a reassessment of Sulla's guilt and Cicero's undertaking of the case, and also considers issues such as the prose rhythm of the speech and its publication. The commentary discusses history, text and syntax as well as rhetoric and style. Abraham est l'un d'eux. Antonius Orator and C. Licinius Crassus over the relative importance of theoretical knowledge and practical experience.

I sogni a Roma. Cicerone: il trattato sulla divinazione. And the same is true for essential German contributions to a tradition that has eventually emancipated itself from the confines of rhetoric: A. Henriette van der Blom argues that Cicero advertised himself as a follower of chosen models of behaviour from the past - his role models - and in turn presented himself as a role model to others.

This new angle provides fresh insights into the political and literary career of one of the best-known Romans, and into the political discourse of the late Roman Republic. Table of Contents Introduction 1. Mos, maiores, and historical exempla in Roman culture and society 2. Mos, maiores, and historical exempla in Cicero I. Cicero, the homo novus 3. Nobilis and homo novus II. Definitions of historical exempla and personal exemplum 6. The nature and functions of historical exempla III. Cicero as exemplum 9. An exemplum and teacher to the younger generation A family exemplum Conclusion.

Riassunto: In Cic. Summary: In Cic. However, a new interpretation can be given hereafter. Simili considerazioni, secondo l'A. In secondo luogo, Cicerone accentua "l'aspetto volontaristico della clementia " p. Applying a methodology grounded in Socratic skepticism, Cicero synthesizes the Stoics and Aristotle to create his own moral theory. From this theory, we derive a Ciceronian set of recommended traits that make up a model business leader.

Central to this model is the recognition that there are two lodestars in life, the beneficial and the honorable. The first directs each of us to attend to our personal happiness, and the second to our moral worth. The honor of a business leader is secured by the practice of four virtues: wisdom, justice, greatness of spirit, and seemliness. Oltre al resoconto liviano, oggetto delle pagine conclusive pp. Abstract - This is a conference paper which compares and contrasts the views of Aristotle and Cicero in relation to cosmopolitan political thought.

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Amazing Grace , Cicero stands out, however, not only because of his fame, but also because his murder included a unique addition to the customary decapitation. For his corpse was deprived not only of its head, but also of its right hand. Plutarch tells us why Mark Antony wanted the hand that wrote the Philippics. Segue una descrizione del funzionamento della posta in Roma. According to this new interpretation the otium of the young aristocrats would be tolerated until a certain degree, but the behaviour of Clodius would go beyond the accepted type of conduct.

Distingue l'ethos del cliente, contraddistinto dai suoi buoni mores, da quello dell'oratore, contraddistinto anche da auctoritas; questa seconda funzione, secondo l'autrice, costituisce un recupero parziale dell'ethos aristotelico. Riassunto in francese ed inglese alle pp. La Rhetorica ad C. Dalla disamina dei passi desunti da alcune delle sue epistole Fam. XV, 4. Aveva ingegno, spirito critico, memoria, cultura, applicazione, previdenza, diligenza. Taking influences from Italo disco and Italo house, Italo dance generally included synthesizer riffs, a melodic sound, and the usage of vocoders.

Producers such as Giorgio Moroder , who won three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes for his music, were highly influential in the development of electronic dance music. Other companies soon followed in Milan and in Naples. In a short time these first companies reached a fair producing quality, and films were soon sold outside Italy. After the war, Italian film was widely recognised and exported until an artistic decline around the s.

The mids to the early s was the heyday of neorealist films , reflecting the poor condition of post-war Italy. As the country grew wealthier in the s, a form of neorealism known as pink neorealism succeeded, and other film genres , such as sword-and-sandal followed as spaghetti westerns , were popular in the s and s. Actresses such as Sophia Loren , Giulietta Masina and Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period.


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Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos , produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the s, also influenced the horror genre worldwide. In the s, the number of international productions being made there led to Rome's being dubbed " Hollywood on the Tiber ". More than 3, productions have been made on its lot, of which 90 received an Academy Award nomination and 47 of these won it, from some cinema classics to recent rewarded features such as Roman Holiday , Ben-Hur , Cleopatra , Romeo and Juliet , The English Patient , The Passion of the Christ , and Gangs of New York.

The most popular sport in Italy is, by far, football. Italy's top-flight club football league is named Serie A and is followed by millions of fans around the world. Other popular team sports in Italy include volleyball , basketball and rugby. Italy's male and female national volleyball teams are often featured among the world's best. The Italian national basketball team 's best results were gold at Eurobasket and EuroBasket , as well as silver at the Olympics in Lega Basket Serie A is widely considered one of the most competitive in Europe.

Rugby union enjoys a good level of popularity, especially in the north of the country. Italy ranks as a tier-one nation by World Rugby. The men's volleyball team won three consecutive World Championships in , , and and earned the Olympic silver medal in , , and Italy has a long and successful tradition in individual sports as well.

Bicycle racing is a very familiar sport in the country. Alpine skiing is also a very widespread sport in Italy, and the country is a popular international skiing destination, known for its ski resorts. Tennis has a significant following in Italy, ranking as the fourth most practised sport in the country.

Italian professional tennis players won the Davis Cup in and the Fed Cup in , , and Motorsports are also extremely popular in Italy. Italian Scuderia Ferrari is the oldest surviving team in Grand Prix racing, having competed since , and statistically the most successful Formula One team in history with a record of wins. Historically, Italy has been successful in the Olympic Games , taking part from the first Olympiad and in 47 Games out of Italian sportsmen have won medals at the Summer Olympic Games , and another at the Winter Olympic Games , for a combined total of medals with golds, which makes them the fifth most successful nation in Olympic history for total medals.

The country hosted two Winter Olympics and will host a third in , , and , and one Summer games in Italian fashion has a long tradition , and is regarded as one most important in the world. Milan, Florence and Rome are Italy's main fashion capitals. Also, the fashion magazine Vogue Italia , is considered one of the most prestigious fashion magazines in the world. Italy is also prominent in the field of design, notably interior design, architectural design , industrial design and urban design.

The country has produced some well-known furniture designers, such as Gio Ponti and Ettore Sottsass , and Italian phrases such as "Bel Disegno" and "Linea Italiana" have entered the vocabulary of furniture design. The city of Milan hosts Fiera Milano , Europe's largest design fair. The Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC. Italian cuisine in itself takes heavy influences, including Etruscan , ancient Greek , ancient Roman , Byzantine , and Jewish.

The Mediterranean diet forms the basis of Italian cuisine, rich in pasta , fish, fruits and vegetables and characterised by its extreme simplicity and variety, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients. A key factor in the success of Italian cuisine is its heavy reliance on traditional products; Italy has the most traditional specialities protected under EU law.

Public holidays celebrated in Italy include religious, national and regional observances. The Saint Lucy's Day , which take place on 13 December, is very popular among children in some Italian regions, where she plays a role similar to Santa Claus. There are many festivals and festivities in Italy. The prestigious Venice International Film Festival , awarding the " Golden Lion " and held annually since , is the oldest film festival in the world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country.

For other uses, see Italy disambiguation. For other uses, see Italia disambiguation. Show globe. Show map of Europe. German is co-official in South Tyrol ; French is co-official in the Aosta Valley ; Slovene is co-official in the province of Trieste and the province of Gorizia ; Ladin is co-official in South Tyrol, in Trentino and in other northern areas; Sardinian is co-official in Sardinia. The euro is accepted in Campione d'Italia but its official currency is the Swiss franc. Main article: Name of Italy.

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Main article: History of Italy. Etruscan fresco in the Monterozzi necropolis , 5th century BC. The Sassi cave houses of Matera are among the first human settlements in Italy dating back to the Paleolithic. Main article: Ancient Rome. The Colosseum in Rome, built c. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, AD. Main article: Italy in the Middle Ages. See also: Barbarian kingdoms. Main article: Italian unification. Giuseppe Mazzini left , highly influential leader of the Italian revolutionary movement; and Giuseppe Garibaldi right , celebrated as one of the greatest generals of modern times [84] and the " Hero of the Two Worlds ", [85] who commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led to the Italian unification.

Main article: History of the Italian Republic. Main article: Geography of Italy. Corno Grande m , part of the Gran Sasso massif is the highest point of the Apennines. See also: List of rivers of Italy and List of lakes of Italy. Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands. Flamingos in the delta of the Po river. See also: Volcanology of Italy. See also: List of national parks of Italy and List of regional parks of Italy. Main articles: Fauna of Italy and Flora of Italy. Main article: Climate of Italy. Main article: Politics of Italy. Sergio Mattarella President of Italy since Giuseppe Conte Prime Minister of Italy since Main articles: Law of Italy and Judiciary of Italy.

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Main article: Religion in Italy. Italy is home to many of the world's largest, oldest and opulent churches. Clockwise from left: Florence Cathedral , which has the biggest brick dome in the world; [] [] St. Peter's Basilica , the largest church of Christendom ; [] Milan Cathedral , the largest Italian church and the third largest in the world; [] and St Mark's Basilica , one of the best known examples of Italo- Byzantine architecture [].

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