This book is an early-reader geared towards first through third graders. In it, Rao provides answers to basic questions about the sun, moon, stars, planets, comets, and meteors.
The book also provides information about the recent total solar eclipse. A little outdated due to its release, the updated version nevertheless demotes Pluto from planetary status. Illustrated and familiar to kids who love Dr. It serves as a great intro point for Earth, the moon and sun, our solar system, and other objects in space. Want even more? Find YA books about space here. Listen Shop Insiders. Thank you for signing up!
Keep an eye on your inbox. Go here to enter for a chance to win , or just click the image below. Good luck! This information is updated continuously, yielding accurate real-time values for an object's altitude, azimuth, and for sidereal time, for as long as you wish. It is the fastest program of its kind available, and uses the mouse or convenient command keys.
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Now with better printing, GIF image display, and support for up to , stars! StarTrak Psion 3 series is a computerised database, containing information on the planets, all the Messier objects, as well as a number of other objects in the sky. WinMeeus Win3. It is an implementation of selected algorithms from Astronomical Formulae for Calculators by Jean Meeus. For Palm OS. For PDA use. Interesting software. Downloadable software. Home Planet. M ercury. Water on MARS! Spirit Update: Heading to 'Humphrey' Feb. Flight Director's Update Feb. More rover news and features. Directory Earth Sciences Lessons www.
The Planet Jupiter Planet Jupiter pictures. Saturn planet - Wikipedia. Sol our sun. Cassini Orbiter. Outter Planets. New Planets?? Sedna - an new planet? A planetoid - Sedna? IAU naming. Free Northern Sky Program. History of the Telescope. The Nine Planets Ours. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Find out how you can help support Wikipedia's phenomenal growth. Astronomy, which etymologically means laws of the stars , is the science whose subject is the observation and explanation of events outside Earth. Astrophysics is the part of astronomy and physics that deals with the application of physics to the phenomena observed by astronomy.
Nearly all astronomers now have a strong background in physics, and the results of observations are usually put in an astrophysical context, so astronomy and astrophysics are used with very close meaning Astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs still play an active role, especially in the discovery and monitoring of transient phenomena.
Astronomy is not to be confused with astrology , a pseudoscience which attempts to predict a person's destiny by tracking the paths of astronomical objects. Although the two fields share a common origin, they are quite different; astronomy embraces the scientific method , while astrology, with no basis in science, does not. The divisions are not unique, however, and the intersections, as well as astronomers who work in several areas, are the rule more than the exception.
A first distinction is between theoretical and observational astronomy and astrophysics. Observers use a variety of means to obtain data about different phenomena, data that is then used by theorists to create and constrain theories and models, to explain observations and to predict new ones. Fields of study are also categorized in another two main ways: by subject, usually according to the region of space e. Galactic astronomy or problems addressed such as star formation or cosmology ; and according to the means of obtaining the data e.
By way of obtaining information In astronomy, the main way of obtaining information is through the detection and analysis of electromagnetic radiation , photons , but we also receive information from outside the earth carried by cosmic rays , neutrinos , and, in the near future, gravitational waves see LIGO and LISA. A traditional division of astronomy is given by the region of the electromagnetic spectrum observed: Optical astronomy refers to the techniques used to detect and analyze light in and slightly around the wavelengths than can be detected with the eyes about - nm.
The most common tool is the telescope , with electronic imagers and spectrographs. Infrared astronomy deals with using infrared radiation wavelengths longer than the red light. Again, the most common tool is the telescope , but with instruments sensitive to longer wavelengths; the telescope itself can be optimized for infrared. Space telescopes are also used to eliminate noise electromagnetic interference from the atmosphere. Radio astronomy uses completely different instruments to detect radiation of wavelengths of mm to cm.
The receivers are similar to those used in radio broadcast transmission which uses those wavelengths of radiation. See also Radio telescopes. High-energy astronomy Optical and radio astronomy can be done using ground-based observatories , because the atmosphere is transparent at those wavelengths. Infrared light is heavily absorbed by water vapor , so infrared observatories have to be located in high, dry places or in space. The atmosphere is opaque at the wavelengths used by X-ray astronomy , gamma-ray astronomy , UV astronomy and, except for a few wavelength "windows", Far infrared astronomy , and so observations can be carried out only from balloons or space observatories.
Short history In the early part of its history, astronomy involved only the observation and predictions of the motions of the objects in the sky that could be seen with the naked eye. The Rigveda refers to the 27 constellations associated with the motions of the sun and also the 12 zodiacal divisions of the sky. The ancient Greeks made many important contributions to astronomy, among them the definition of the magnitude system. The Bible contains a number of statements on the position of the earth in the universe, the nature of the stars and planets, and so forth, most of which are contradicted by modern astronomy; see Biblical cosmology.
In AD , Aryabhata presented a mathematical system that took the earth to spin on its axis and considered the motions of the planets with respect to the sun. The study of astronomy almost stopped during the middle ages, except for the work of some Arabic astronomers. The renaissance came to astronomy with the work of Copernicus , who proposed a heliocentric model of the Solar System. His work was defended, expanded upon, and corrected by the likes of Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler.
The latter of these was the first to provide a system which described correctly the details of the motion of the planets with the Sun at the center.
General Astronomy - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
However, Kepler did not understand the reasons behind the laws he wrote down. It was left to Newton's invention of celestial dynamics and his law of gravitation , the final explanation of the motions of the planets. Astrophysics was a later development, which only became possible once it was understood that the elements that made up the "celestial objects" were the same that made up the Earth , and that the same laws of physics applied. Stars were found to be far away objects, and with the advent of spectroscopy it was proved that they were similar to our own sun, but with a wide range of temperatures , masses and sizes.
The existence of our galaxy , the Milky Way , as a separate group of stars was only proven in the 20th century, along with the existence of "external" galaxies, and soon after, the expansion of the universe seen in the recession of most galaxies from us. Cosmology , a discipline that has a large intersection with astronomy, made huge advances during the 20th century, with the model of the hot big bang heavily supported by the evidence provided by astronomy and physics, such as the cosmic microwave background radiation , Hubble's Law and cosmological abundances of elements.
For a more detailed history of astronomy, see the history of astronomy. See also: Astronomers and Astrophysicists space science Can't see Polaris from your observing site? Need to align your telescope on an equatorial mount? True North and magnetic North is not the same thing - except along the zero line in the map below. Use a simple magnetic compass and adjust for true North by using the map below that tells you your magnetic deviation from true North. This will get you close enough to true North for visual observation.
Numbers left of the zero line are negative and to the right they are positive. For more accurate - up to date declination use the NOAA calculator at the link below:.
Cleaning Optics. Where is the "Space Station"? Note: Wait for Java applet to load. Press J-pass for chart of when you can see the station. Universe Today - Space news from around the Internet, updated every weekday. Published in , this short fantasy takes us to a completely flat world of two physical dimensions where all the inhabitants are geometric shapes, and who think the planar world of length and width that they know is all there is.
But one inhabitant discovers the existence of a third physical dimension, enabling him to finally grasp the concept of a fourth dimension. Watching our Flatland narrator, we begin to get an idea of the limitations of our own assumptions about reality, and we start to learn how to think about the confusing problem of higher dimensions. The book is also quite a funny satire on society and class distinctions of Victorian England. The Strong Force; an Explanation - The Standard Model Introduction of everyday forces and quarks, leptons, boson's, fundamental particles and other issues.
Fourth Dimension by Charles H. Seven years later radio astronomers identify the first distant source - the Crab Nebula, and the galaxies Centaurus A and M German physicist Hans Bethe explains how stars generate energy. He outlines a series of nuclear fusion reactions that turn hydrogen into helium and release enormous amounts of energy in a star's core. These reactions use the star's hydrogen very slowly, allowing it to burn for billions of years.
ISBN 13: 9781478169727
A team of German scientists led by Wernher von Braun develops the V-2, the first rocket-powered ballistic missile. Scientists and engineers from Braun's team were captured at the end of World War II and drafted into the American and Russian rocket programs. The largest telescope in the world, with a 5. At the time, the telescope pushes single-mirror telescope technology to its limits - large mirrors tend to bend under their own weight.
Russia launches the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, into orbit, beginning the space age. The US launches its first satellite, Explorer 1, four months later. The Russian Luna program was more successful. Luna 2 crash-lands on the Moon's surface in September, and Luna 3 returns the first pictures of the Moon's farside in October. Frank Baum 's fantasy books.
Russia takes the lead in the space race as Yuri Gagarin becomes the first person to orbit Earth in April. NASA astronaut Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space a month later, but does not go into orbit, although he is the first person to land with himself still inside his spacecraft thus technically achieving the first complete human spaceflight by FAI definitions. Mariner 2 becomes the first probe to reach another planet, flying past Venus in December.
NASA follows this with the successful Mariner 4 mission to Mars in , both the US and Russia send many more probes to planets through the rest of the s and s. Dutch-American astronomer Maarten Schmidt measures the spectra of quasars, the mysterious star-like radio sources discovered in He establishes that quasars are active galaxies, and among the most distant objects in the universe. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson announce the discovery of a weak radio signal coming from all parts of the sky. Soon it is recognized as the remnant of the very hot radiation from the Big Bang that created the universe 13 billion years ago, see Cosmic microwave background.
This radio signal is emitted by the electron in hydrogen flipping from pointing up or down and is approximated to happen once in a million years for every particle. Hydrogen is present in interstellar space gas throughout the entire universe and most dense in nebulae which is where the signals originate. Even though the electron of hydrogen only flips once every million years the mere quantity of hydrogen in space gas makes the presence of these radio waves prominent. Russian Luna 9 probe makes the first successful soft landing on the Moon in January, while the US lands the far more complex Surveyor missions, which follows up to NASA's Ranger series of crash-landers, scout sites for possible manned landings.
Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish detected the first pulsar, an object emitting regular pulses of radio waves. Pulsars are eventually recognized as rapidly spinning neutron stars with intense magnetic fields - the remains of a supernova explosion.
NASA's Apollo 8 mission becomes the first human spaceflight mission to enter the gravitational influence of another celestial body and to orbit it. Apollo 11 is followed by five further landing missions, three carrying a sophisticated Lunar Roving Vehicle. The existence of X-rays from the Sun and a few other stars has already been found using rocket-launched experiments, but Uhuru charts more than X-ray sources, including several possible black holes.
Russia launches its first space station, Salyut 1, into orbit. It is followed by a series of stations, culminating with Mir in A permanent platform in orbit allows cosmonauts to carry out serious research and to set a series of new duration records for spaceflight. Charles Thomas Bolton was the first astronomer to present irrefutable evidence of the existence of a black hole.
The Russian probe Venera 9 lands on the surface of Venus and sends back the first picture of its surface. The first probe to land on another planet, Venera 7 in , had no camera. Both break down within an hour in the hostile atmosphere. Each Viking mission consists of an orbiter, which photographs the planet from above, and a lander, which touches down on the surface, analyzes the rocks, and searches unsuccessfully for life. On August 20 the Voyager 2 space probe launched by NASA to study the Jovian system , Saturnian system , Uranian system , Neptunian system , the Kuiper belt , the heliosphere and the interstellar space.
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Space Shuttle Columbia , the first of NASA's reusable Space Shuttles , makes its maiden flight, ten years in development, the Shuttle will make space travel routine and eventually open the path for a new International Space Station. The first infrared astronomy satellite, IRAS , is launched. It must be cooled to extremely low temperatures with liquid helium, and it operates for only days before the supply of helium is exhausted.
A thorough inquiry and modifications to the rest of the fleet kept the shuttles on the ground for nearly three years. The most ambitious is the European Space Agency's Giotta spacecraft, which flies through the comet's coma and photographs the nucleus. Magellan is the first in a new wave of probes that include Galileo , which arrives at Jupiter in , and Cassini which arrives at Saturn in The Hubble Space Telescope , the first large optical telescope in orbit, is launched using the Space Shuttle , but astronomers soon discovered that it is crippled by a problem with its mirror.
A complex repair mission in allows the telescope to start producing spectacular images of distant stars, nebulae, and galaxies. The Cosmic Background Explorer satellite produces a detailed map of the background radiation remaining from the Big Bang. The meter Keck telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, is completed.
The first revolutionary new wave of telescopes, the Keck's main mirror is made of 36 six-sided segments, with computers to control their alignment. Construction work on a huge new space station named ISS has begun. A joint venture between many countries, including former space rivals Russia and the US. Mike Brown and his team discovered a large body in the outer Solar System. Initially, it appeared larger than Pluto, and was called the tenth planet. A new distinct class of objects called dwarf planets was also decided. Pluto was redefined as a dwarf planet along with Ceres and Eris , formerly known as UB May 2 First visual proof of existence of black holes is published.
In October , the first extrasolar asteroid is detected around white dwarf star GD It is also the first detected extrasolar body which contains water in liquid or solid form. In July 14, with the successful encounter of Pluto by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, the United States became the first nation to explore all of the nine major planets recognized in Exoplanet Proxima Centauri b is discovered around Proxima Centauri by the European Southern Observatory , making it the closest known exoplanet to the Solar System as of After 1.
Further optical observations e.
Jansky Very Large Array complemented the detection. This was the first instance of a gravitational wave event that was observed to have a simultaneous electromagnetic signal, thereby marking a significant breakthrough for multi-messenger astronomy. China's Chang'e 4 became the first spacecraft to perform a soft landing on the lunar far side. In April , the Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration obtained the first image of a black hole which was at the center of galaxy M87 , providing more evidence for the existence of supermassive black holes in accordance with general relativity.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. History of Western Philosophy. Simon and Schuster. Retrieved 1 June Princeton University Press. The introduction of the uniform zodiac", Archive for History of Exact Sciences , 64 6 : —, doi : Retrieved The Argumentative Indian.